Table 1.

Features of evolutionary spaces. Protein spaces have been viewed as the mapping from a sequence space, but in a broader context both protein and developmental spaces are intermediaries between genetic and phenotypic spaces, with novelties and innovations largely occurring in different types of spaces Most of the spaces discussed here are variants of phenotypic spaces. Wagner-reg and Wagner-met are the regulatory and metabolic spaces described in Wagner [62]. In general, morphospaces are not landscapes, but see McGhee [11] for a discussion of morphospaces as adaptive landscapes. ‘Variable’ indicates that topology of the space or involvement in novelty or innovation may vary depending on the taxonomic breadth under study.

evolutionary spacespace or landscapetopologynovelty or innovation
genotype—Wrightbothmetricnovelty
genotype—NKbothmetricnovelty
proteinbothmetricnovelty
developmentalbothvariablenovelty
Wagner-regspaceEuclideannovelty
Wagner-metspaceEuclideannovelty
adaptive (Simpsonian)landscapevariablevariable
morphospaces
 landmarkspacelocally Euclidean grading to pre-topology with increasing morphologic scopevariable
 no landmarksspacetopology to pre-topologyvariable
skeletal designspacesetnovelty
phenotypic traitvariablevariableinnovation
functionalvariablevariableinnovation
ecospacespacesetinnovation