Table 3.

Analyses of hominin microwear texture data (central tendencies). All data rank transformed to mitigate violation of assumptions inherent to parametric statistics (Conover & Iman 1981). *p < 0.05 for Fisher's LSD test, **p < 0.05 for both Tukey's HSD and Fisher's LSD tests (shown in italic).

valueFd.f.p-value
multivariate test results
Wilks's λ0.037205.7835390.000
Pillai trace0.963205.7835390.000
Hotelling–Lawley trace26.382205.7835390.000
ANOVA test resultsAsfcepLsarSmcHAsfc9HAsfc81
F32.3972.7354.05612.09623.204
d.f.443443443443443
p-value0.0000.0410.0070.0000.000
paired comparisonsAsfcepLsarSmcHAsfc9HAsfc81
Au. afarensis × Au. africanus19.279**−6.037−1.084−15.421**−19.616**
Au. afarensis × Au. anamensis−9.579*1.59612.649−6.421−12.982*
Au. afarensis × Par. boisei4.5642.977−2.613−8.421−8.887*
Au. afarensis × Par. robustus−27.357**13.263*16.705**−27.088**−29.982**
Au. africanus × Au. anamensis9.7007.63313.7339.0006.633
Au. africanus × Par. boisei23.843**9.014−1.5297.00010.729*
Au. africanus × Par. robustus−8.078*19.300**17.789**−11.667*−10.367*
Au. anamensis × Par. boisei14.143*1.381−15.262−2.0004.095
Au. anamensis × Par. robustus−17.778**11.6674.056−20.667**−17.000**
Par. boisei × Par. robustus−31.921**10.28619.317**−18.667**−21.095**