Table 2.

Characterization of post-harvest infrastructure in relation to stages of economic development.

type of post-harvest infrastructuretechnological developmentlevel of developmentsupply chain characteristicstype of growersmarkets and quality
developing traditional systemssimple technologies, labour-intensive, traditional storage systems and harvesting techniqueslow-income countriespoor integration with local markets, many intermediaries supplying urban marketssmallholders, including subsistence farmerslocal markets: mostly meeting household/village food requirements; limited access to international markets
intermediate systems—‘transitional’packing houses, refrigeration and storage facilities systems alongside elements of traditional systemslow- and middle-income countriesrequires closer integration of growers, suppliers, processors and distribution systemssmall-scale farmers who often have access to limited post-harvest-specific infrastructureproduce of variable quality, target both local (including supermarkets) and, increasingly, export markets in a number of countries
developed industrialized systemsaccess to relatively sophisticated technologies, e.g. packing-house equipment and cold chains; losses still occur; harvesting highly mechanized, e.g. wheatmiddle- and high-income countriesuse of highly integrated systems between growers and supply chain; more seasonal produce imported; more secondary processing of foodmedium- and large-scale farmersmeet the quality and safety, as well as volume and timeliness demands of local (particularly supermarkets/convenience store chains) and export markets