Table 1.

Generic FSC and examples of food waste.

stageexamples of food waste/loss characteristics
(1)harvesting—handling at harvestedible crops left in field, ploughed into soil, eaten by birds, rodents, timing of harvest not optimal: loss in food quality
crop damaged during harvesting/poor harvesting technique
out-grades at farm to improve quality of produce
(2)threshingloss through poor technique
(3)drying—transport and distributionpoor transport infrastructure, loss owing to spoiling/bruising
(4)storagepests, disease, spillage, contamination, natural drying out of food
processing
(5)primary processing—cleaning, classification, de-hulling, pounding, grinding, packaging, soaking, winnowing, drying, sieving, millingprocess losses
contamination in process causing loss of quality
(6)secondary processing—mixing, cooking, frying moulding, cutting, extrusionprocess losses
contamination in process causing loss of quality
(7)product evaluation—quality control: standard recipesproduct discarded/out-grades in supply chain
(8)packaging—weighing, labelling, sealinginappropriate packaging damages produce
grain spillage from sacks
attack by rodents
(9)marketing—publicity, selling, distributiondamage during transport: spoilage
poor handling in wet market
losses caused by lack of cooling/cold storage
(10)post-consumer—recipes elaboration: traditional dishes, new dishes product evaluation, consumer education, discardsplate scrapings
poor storage/stock management in homes: discarded before serving
poor food preparation technique: edible food discarded with inedible
food discarded in packaging: confusion over ‘best before’ and ‘use by’ dates
(11)end of life—disposal of food waste/loss at different stages of supply chainfood waste discarded may be separately treated, fed to livestock/poultry, mixed with other wastes and landfilled