Table 1.

Comparison of survey protocols for monitoring the accumulation of beached litter in the USA (US Marine Debris Monitoring Program (USMDMP), Sheavly 2007) and Europe (Beach Litter Monitoring Programme, OSPAR Commission 2007a).

type of beachsand/gravelsand/gravel
beach slope15–45° (not steep)
beach length (m)>500>1000
length of beach surveyed (m)500100 (all items)
1000 (items >0.5 m across)
sample frequency (days)28 ± 390 (approx.)a
type of litter recorded31 indicator itemsall debris (111 categories)
other criteriano regular cleaningdistant from sources (rivers)
no impact on threatened speciesvisually/frequently littered
  • aLitter is not removed at some OSPAR sites and some sites are also cleaned by local municipalities (Barbara Wenneker in litt.).