Table 1.

Structuring policy problems. Adapted from Hisschemöller & Hoppé (2001), Snowden & Boone (2007) and Shaxson (2008).

is there consensus and clarity in the policy question …
noyes
nounstructured problemmoderately structured problem
policy issues are ‘complex’policy issues are ‘knowable’
… and clarity about the relevant knowledgedomain of emergencedomain of experts
yesbadly structured problemwell-structured problem
policy issues are ‘chaotic’policy issues are ‘known’
domain of rapid or symbolic responsesdomain of best practice