TableĀ 4.

Health outcomes in adults associated with phthalate concentrations in biological samples.a Adapted from Swan (2008). Abbreviations are the same as given in tableĀ 3.

systemsexoutcomephthalate or metabolite (measured in urine unless otherwise noted)references
reproductivemalesincreased sperm DNA damageMEP, MEHPHauser et al. (2007)
increased sperm DNA damageMEPDuty et al. (2003b)
decreased sperm motilityMBPDuty et al. (2003a); Hauser et al. (2006)
decreased sperm concentrationMBP, MBzPDuty et al. (2003a); Hauser et al. (2006)b
malesdecreased sperm motilityDBP and DEHP in semen samplesZhang (2006)
malesdecreased free T and increased LH/free TMBPPan et al. (2006)
malesdecreased FSHMBzPDuty et al. (2005b)c
malesdecreased motility, reduced LHMEPJonsson et al. (2005)
respiratory, allergy and asthmamalesdecreased pulmonary functionMEP, MBPHoppin et al. (2004)
metabolicmalesincreased waist circumferenceMBzP, MEHHP MEOHP, MEPStahlhut et al. (2007)
altered thyroid hormoneMBP, MBzP, MEP
thyroidmaleslevels (decreased T3 and T4)MEHPMeeker et al. (2007b)
  • aAssociations significant at p < 0.05.

  • bIn Hauser et al. (2006), p-value for MBzP association was 0.13.

  • cIn Duty et al. (2005b), p-value for association between MEHP and testosterone was 0.10.