TableĀ 3.

Health outcomes in infants and children associated with phthalate concentrations in biological or environmental samples.a Adapted from Swan (2008). Abbreviations: BBzP, butyl benzyl phthalate; DBP, dibutyl phthalate; DEHP, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; MMP, mono-methyl phthalate; MCPP, mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate; MEHP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate; MEHHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxylhexyl) phthalate; MEP, mono-ethyl phthalate; MBP, mono-butyl phthalate; MBzP, mono-benzyl phthalate; MiNP, mono-isononyl phthalate.

systemtiming of exposuresexoutcomephthalate or metabolite (measured in urine unless otherwise noted)references
reproductivepre-natalmales/femalesshorter gestational age at birthMEHP (in cord blood)Latini et al. (2003)
pre-natal (mean age 12.6 months at exam)malesshorter anogenital distanceMEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, MBPSwan (2008)
reduced penile sizeMEHP
incomplete testicular descentMEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP
lactation (mean age 3 months)malesincreased SHBGMEP, MBPMain (2006b)
increased LH/free TMMP, MEP, MBP
increased LHMiNP
decreased free TMBP
early childhoodfemalespremature thelarcheDEHP (in serum)Colon et al. (2000)
respiratory, allergy and asthmachildhoodmales/femalesrhinitis and eczemaBBzP (in house dust)Bornehag et al. (2004)
asthmaDEHP (in house dust)Bornehag et al. (2004)
wheezing, rhinitis and eczemaDEHP (in house dust)Kolarik (2008)
  • aAssociations significant at p < 0.05.