Table 3

Summary of biophysical reduction potential (proportion of an animal's enteric methane production) for enteric methane emissions due to (i) improved feeding practices, (ii) specific agents and dietary additives and (iii) longer term structural/management change and animal breeding.a

AEZ regionsimproved feeding practicesbspecific agents and dietary additivesclonger term structural/management change and animal breedingd



dairy cowsbeef cattlesheepdairy buffalonon-dairy buffalodairy cowsbeef cattlesheepdairy buffalonon-dairy buffalodairy cowsbeef cattlesheepdairy buffalonon-dairy buffalo
North Europe0.180.120.040.080.040.0040.040.030.003
South Europe0.180.120.040.080.040.0040.040.030.003
West Europe0.180.120.040.080.040.0040.040.030.003
East Europe0.110.060.030.040.010.0020.030.070.003
Russian Federation0.100.050.030.030.040.0020.030.060.003
Japan0.170.110.040.080.090.0040.030.030.003
South Asia0.040.020.020.040.020.010.010.00050.010.0020.010.010.0010.010.02
East Asia0.100.050.030.100.050.030.050.0020.030.0120.030.060.0030.030.07
West Asia0.060.030.020.060.030.010.020.0010.010.0040.010.020.0010.020.03
Southeast Asia0.060.030.020.060.030.010.020.0010.010.0040.010.020.0010.020.03
Central Asia0.060.030.020.060.030.010.020.0010.010.0040.010.020.0010.020.03
Oceania0.220.140.060.080.080.0040.050.030.004
North America0.160.110.040.110.090.0040.030.030.003
South America0.060.030.020.030.020.0010.020.030.002
Central America0.030.020.020.020.010.0010.010.020.002
East Africa0.010.010.010.0030.0040.00020.0040.0060.0004
West Africa0.010.010.010.0030.0040.00020.0040.0060.0004
North Africa0.010.010.010.0030.0040.00020.0040.0060.0004
South Africa0.010.010.010.0030.0040.00020.0040.0060.0004
Middle Africa0.010.010.010.0030.0040.00020.0040.0060.0004
  • a Values have been adjusted for non-additivity of individual practices.

  • b Includes replacing roughage with concentrate (Blaxter & Clapperton 1965; Moe & Tyrrell 1979; Johnson & Johnson 1995; Yan et al. 2000; Mills et al. 2003; Beauchemin & McGinn 2005; Lovett et al. 2006), improving forages/inclusion of legumes (Leng 1991; McCrabb et al. 1998; McCaughney et al. 1999; Woodward et al. 2001; Waghorn et al. 2002; Pinares-Patino et al. 2003; Alcock & Hegarty 2005) and feeding extra dietary oil (Dohme et al. 2000; Machmülller et al. 2000, 2003, Lovett et al. 2003; McGinn et al. 2004; Beauchemin & McGinn 2005; Jordan et al. 2006a,b).

  • c Includes bST (Johnson et al. 1991; Bauman 1992), growth hormones (McCrabb 2001), ionophores (Benz & Johnson 1982; Rumpler et al. 1986; Van Nevel & Demeyer 1996; McGinn et al. 2004), propionate precursors (McGinn et al. 2004; Beauchemin & McGinn 2005; Newbold et al. 2005; Wallace et al. 2005).

  • d Includes lifetime management of beef cattle (Johnson et al. 2002; Lovett & O'Mara 2002) and improved productivity through animal breeding (Ferris et al. 1999; Hansen 2000; Robertson & Waghorn 2002; Miglior et al. 2005).