Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

Emma L. Teuten, Jovita M. Saquing, Detlef R. U. Knappe, Morton A. Barlaz, Susanne Jonsson, Annika Björn, Steven J. Rowland, Richard C. Thompson, Tamara S. Galloway, Rei Yamashita, Daisuke Ochi, Yutaka Watanuki, Charles Moore, Pham Hung Viet, Touch Seang Tana, Maricar Prudente, Ruchaya Boonyatumanond, Mohamad P. Zakaria, Kongsap Akkhavong, Yuko Ogata, Hisashi Hirai, Satoru Iwasa, Kaoruko Mizukawa, Yuki Hagino, Ayako Imamura, Mahua Saha, Hideshige Takada

Abstract

Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development.

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