Pharmacogenetics in drug development

Alun D McCarthy, James L Kennedy, Lefkos T Middleton
Table 2

Pharmacodynamic (drug target) polymorphisms associated with variation in medication response.

genemedicationphenotype changereferences
angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)ACE inhibitors (imidapril, enalapril)blood pressure, kidney damage reduction, left ventricular hypertrophy reduction, blood vessel stenosisOhmichi et al. (1997), Jacobsen et al. (1998), Penno et al. (1998), Kohno et al. (1999) and Okamura et al. (1999)
arachidonate 5 lipoxygenase (ALOX)anti-asthmatics (leukotriene inhibitors)forced expiratory volume (FEV-1) improvementDrazen et al. (2003)
beta 2 adrenergic receptor (ADRBR2)beta-2 agonists (albuterol)vascular reactivity, bronchodilationLima et al. (1999), Martinez et al. (1999), Dishy et al. (2001), Israel et al. (2001) and Cockcroft et al. (2000)
corticotrophin releasing hormone receptor 1inhaled coricosteroidsimproved lung function (FEV-1)Tantisira et al. (2004)
dopamine D3traditional antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, haloperidol)abnormal involuntary muscle movements (tardive dyskinesia), akathisiaSteen et al. (1997), Basile et al. (1999) and Lerer et al. (2002)
dopamine D2risperidone (antipsychotic)response of schizophrenia symptomsYamanouchi et al. (2003)
growth hormone receptorgrowth hormoneincreased responsiveness to growth hormoneDos Santos et al. (2004)
serotonin transporterantidepressantsmood improvement, side effectsSmeraldi et al. (1998), Serretti et al. (2000), Murphy et al. (2004) and Mundo et al. (2001)