The different regulation of sister chromatid cohesion at centromeres and along chromosome arms is obvious during meiosis, because centromeric cohesion, but not arm cohesion, persists throughout anaphase of the first division. A protein required to protect centromeric cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage has been identified and named shugoshin (or Sgo1) after shugoshin (‘guardian spirit’ in Japanese). It has become apparent that shugoshin shows marginal homology with Drosophila Mei-S332 and several uncharacterized proteins in other eukaryotic organisms. Because Mei-S332 is a protein previously shown to be required for centromeric cohesion in meiosis, it is now established that shugoshin represents a conserved protein family defined as a centromeric protector of Rec8 cohesin complexes in meiosis. The regional difference of sister chromatid cohesion is also observed during mitosis in vertebrates; the cohesion is much more robust at the centromere at metaphase, where it antagonizes the pulling force of spindle microtubules that attach the kinetochores from opposite poles. The human shugoshin homologue (hSgo1) is required to protect the centromeric localization of the mitotic cohesin, Scc1, until metaphase. Bub1 plays a crucial role in the localization of shugoshin to centromeres in both fission yeast and humans.
One contribution of 17 to a Discussion Meeting Issue ‘Chromosome segregation’.
- anaphase promoting complex
- structural maintenance of chromosome
- © 2005 The Royal Society