This paper introduces an emerging transdisciplinary field known as neuroeconomics. Neuroeconomics uses neuroscientific measurement techniques to investigate how decisions are made. First, I present a basic overview of neuroanatomy and explain how brain activity is measured. I then survey findings from the neuroeconomics literature on acquiring rewards and avoiding losses, learning, choice under risk and ambiguity, delay of gratification, the role of emotions in decision-making, strategic decisions and social decisions. I conclude by identifying new directions that neuroeconomics is taking, including applications to public policy and law.