The advent of new technology has led to a proliferation of studies examining the functional roles of discrete prefrontal cortical areas. This has created a need for more precise information regarding the morphological characteristics of this region. Existing architectonic maps of human and monkey brains are not compatible with regard to areal delineations and topography, creating significant difficulty in interpreting comparative data. Therefore, we have re-examined the comparative morphological organization of the prefrontal cortex in humans and rhesus monkeys. Our analysis indicates that the architectonic areas in both species correspond in terms of morphological features as well as topographical locations. We have developed a common organizational schema for these areas, thereby allowing for a resolution of previous discrepancies. Moreover, in monkeys a connectional analysis has revealed that each of the newly designated areas is characterized by a unique pattern of cortical relationships. The present organizational schema provides a framework for interrelating findings such as those obtained from human brain imaging studies with those from behavioural investigations of non-human primates.