Neuropeptide-immunoreactive neurons have been mapped by immunocytochemistry in whole-mount preparations and sections of the central nervous system of Oniscus asellus. We tested rabbit antisera against decapod crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), moult inhibiting hormone (MIH), pigment dispersing hormone (PDH) and red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH). Four CHH- and three PDH-immunoreactive neurons localized in the superior median protocerebrum of the brain constitute neurosecretory pathways to the neurohaemal sinus gland. No immunoreactive structures have been detected with an antiserum against MIH of Carcinus maenus. Another, newly identified neurosecretory pathway is formed by a group of RPCH-immunoreactive neurons in the mandibular ganglion. These neurons project to the neurohaemal lateral cephalic nerve plexus. Further PDH- and RPCH-immunoreactive neurons and fibres occur in the brain and the ventral nerve cord (VNC). Two groups of PDH-immunoreactive neurons supply brain and optic lobe neuropils, the bases of the ommatidia, and probably give rise to descending fibres innervating all VNC-neuropils. Two groups and five individuals of RPCH-immunoreactive neurons that innervate several brain neuropils or occur as ascending neurons in the VNC have been reconstructed. The CHH-immunoreactive neurons, and distinct types of PDH- and RPCH-immunoreactive neurons obviously belong to classical hormone-producing neurosecretory pathways. At least the CHH-immunoreactive cells seem to be part of an isopod homologue of the decapod X-organ. The existence of other PDH- and RPCH-immunoreactive interneurons suggests additional functions of these peptides as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, which is in agreement with similar observations in the decapod central nervous system.