This paper presents a methodology for the computer synthesis of realistic faces capable of expressive articulations. A sophisticated three-dimensional model of the human face is developed that incorporates a physical model of facial tissue with an anatomical model of facial muscles. The tissue and muscle models are generic, in that their structures are independent of specific facial geometries. To synthesize specific faces, these models are automatically mapped onto geometrically accurate polygonal facial representations constructed by photogrammetry of stereo facial images or by non-uniform meshing of detailed facial topographies acquired by using range sensors. The methodology offers superior realism by utilizing physical modelling to emulate complex tissue deformations in response to coordinated facial muscle activity. To provide realistic muscle actions to the face model, a performance driven animation technique is developed which estimates the dynamic contractions of a performer's facial muscles from video imagery.