In agriculture and horticulture, chilling and freezing injury of plants often results in serious problems of reduced yield and crop loss. The geographical distribution of many field crops is, in many instances, determined by the minimum temperature encountered. If crop responses to reduced temperature could be modified major changes in productivity would result. In addition to the studies of the effects of environmental temperatures, a separate discipline has arisen in low-temperature biology concerned with the extended storage of viable biological material, generally at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Until recently, there has been little dialogue between the disciplines of environmental studies and cryopreservation. It is probable that an understanding of the tolerance of organisms to environmental stress would accelerate progress in cryopreservation.