Much progress has been made in line with the spirit of Spinks, but it is inevitable that perspectives have changed since 1980. At the research level, we know that much strategic work remains to be done before the full industrial benefits of biotechnology can be secured, even though there has been a gratifying improvement in academic-industrial liaison. The industrial progress and dissemination of biotechnology has been slower than Spinks implied, but we have a clear understanding of the importance of such contributors to the climate for investment as balanced regulation, training and public perception. The international dimension is important not only for the potential benefit of research and development programmes but also to monitor progress in the U.K. with respect to our competitors. Biotechnology now finds itself in a new framework of Government policy for innovation; there are new challenges in sustaining and adding to the impetus built up by the academic and industrial communities.