Oxidative Stress: Damage to Intact Cells and Organs [and Discussion]

H. Sies, E. Cadenas, M. C. R. Symons, G. Scott

Abstract

Oxidative cell damage can be monitored by detection of (a) photoemission of singlet molecular oxygen formed from radical interactions (so-called low-chemical chemiluminescence), (b) end products of lipid peroxidation, such as ethane, and (c) glutathione disulphide release. These methods, preferably used in a complementary fashion, provide insight into the pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in the intact cell or organ. Recent work from this laboratory on the metabolism of hydroperoxides and aldehydes as well as on redox cycling of the quinone menadione is presented. The comparison of GSSG transport systems in liver and heart reveals a limitation of capacity in the latter, thus making GSSG export potentially critical in the heart. As part of an inter-organ feedback system between extrahepatic tissues and liver, the newly described hormone stimulation of GSH release from liver is also presented.

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