The reactions of organic free radicals, acting as either reductants or oxidants, have been studied by pulse radiolysis in neutral aqueous solution at room temperature. Many hydroxyl-substituted aliphatic carbon-centred radicals and one-electron adducts have been shown to be good one-electron reductants, while several oxygen-, sulphur- and nitrogen- (but not carbon-) centred free radicals have been shown to be good one-electron oxidants. Several carbon-centred radicals can be reduced rapidly by hydrogen transfer, from undissociated thiol compounds which can thus act as catalysts facilitating the overall reduction of a carbon-centred radical by an electron-donating molecule. Kinetic considerations influenced by the one-electron redox potentials of the radical-molecule couples involved, determine whether a particular reaction predominates. In this paper examples of such reactions, involving a water-soluble derivative of vitamin E (Trolox C) and the coenzyme NADH, are described, together with studies showing (a) that even in complex multisolute systems some organic peroxy radicals can inactiviate alcohol dehydrogenase under conditions where the superoxide radical does not, and (b) the superoxide radical can be damaging if urate is also present, and this damage can be reduced by the presence of superoxide dismutase.