Monkeys have more highly developed brains and are more intelligent than rats; yet rats learn some tasks as efficiently as monkeys. For example, rats are as quick at discovering which of two doors hides food or how to open the doors. Presumably tasks of this sort do not greatly tax cortical associative mechanisms since the animals have only to cumulate facts about objects. It is argued that cortical mechanisms are crucial for the ability to relate together information that is presented at different times or in different places. After removal of parts of frontal cortex monkeys can still associate cues that are presented together but they are poor at relating cues that are presented apart.