We transformed mouse L cells with a cloned Drosophila hsp70 gene and obtained cells with either heat-inducible or constitutively expressed copies of the gene. The distribution of hsp70 in these cells was examined by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies specific to the Drosophila protein. In constitutive cells, hsp70 was present in both cytoplasm and nucleus. After heat shock, the nuclear hsp70 was transiently concentrated in nucleoli, from which it had previously been excluded; the cytoplasmic hsp70 moved to a perinuclear location, a result consistent with it being associated with intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton. The nucleolar migration took several hours and was partly inhibited by actinomycin D, but was independent of protein synthesis; it may reflect binding to newly-synthesized rRNA. Drosophila hsp70 was also expressed from replicating plasmids in monkey COS cells, and was found to be concentrated in nuclei even at low temperature. Migration to nucleoli occurred after heat shock. These results indicate that a single protein can have multiple interactions with cellular components, and form the basis for future studies of these interactions by in vitro mutagenesis and expression of the hsp70 gene.