Remains of a fossil amphibian have been recovered from an ironstone layer in the Upper Evergreen Formation, dated as late Liassic, of southeast Queensland. Extraction of the skeleton from the very hard matrix has presented a number of problems which are discussed. The find is an almost complete skull and mandible connected to an articulated postcranial skeleton which is missing only some ribs, the right hind leg and the distal portions of the other limbs and tail. The remains are those of a temnospondyl labyrinthodont described as a new genus and species of the family Chigutisauridae. The new form is notable for its very large size (total length estimated to be in excess of 2.5 m), relatively large marginal dentition, with unique lance-shaped tooth tips, the presence of minute denticles associated with the palate and mandible, a well developed atlas showing a strong link with the axis, neorhachitomous vertebrae that lack ossified pleurocentra and have low, heavily built neural spines, a neck region and a narrow dermal pectoral girdle associated with unreduced limbs. The discovery of this chigutisaur provides the first unequivocal evidence that labyrinthodonts survived beyond the end of the Triassic. The status of two previously described doubtful Jurassic forms is reviewed. Austropelor Longman, 1941, from the Early Jurassic Marburg Sandstone of southeast Queensland, is confirmed as a fragment of temnospondyl lower jaw, probably attributable to the superfamily Brachyopoidea, and there is no longer any reason to consider the earlier suggestion that it is a reworked Triassic fossil. Cyrtura Jaekel, 1904, from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Shale of Germany, is considered not to be a labyrinthodont, but its exact relationships are uncertain. The unsatisfactory nature of the higher taxonomy of the Temnospondyli is noted. The superfamily Brachyopoidea is reviewed and the family Kourerpetontidae is removed from it, membership of the superfamily thereby being restricted to the Brachyopidae (Late Permian to Middle Triassic) and Chigutisauridae (Early Triassic to Early Jurassic). Diagnoses for the superfamily and its two included families are provided. The relationships of the better characterized members of the two families are examined and a phylogeny based on shared derived character states is proposed. The analysis of relationships indicates that Brachyops allos Howie, 1972 shares few of the characters diagnostic of the type of Brachyops (B. laticeps Owen, 1855), and a new genus is proposed. The diversity of Australia's brachyopoids, including the presence of the most primitive and earliest-known members of each of the included families, suggests that the superfamily originated in Australia.