Vascular damage initiates not only the adhesion and aggregation of blood platelets but also coagulation, which is of mixed (intrinsic and extrinsic) origin. Evidence is presented that thrombin, generated as a result of the injury, is a prerequisite for platelet aggregation. Platelets, after activation, in their turn promote coagulation. Prostaglandin I<latex>$_2$</latex> (PGI<latex>$_2$</latex> or prostacyclin) inhibits coagulation induced by damaged vascular tissue. This effect of PGI<latex>$_2$</latex> is mediated by the inhibition of platelets in their participation in the generation of factor X<latex>$_a$</latex> and thrombin. Dietary cod liver oil, by changing plasma coagulability, decreases the procoagulation activity of vessel walls, and arterial thrombosis. Another fish oil with similar effects on plasma coagulability and some other haemostatic parameters does not modify vessel wall-induced clotting, nor does it significantly lower arterial thrombosis tendency; this indicates the physiological relevance of vessel wall-induced clotting in arterial thrombus formation. Some evidence is also given for the importance of vessel wall-induced clotting in primary haemostasis.