Photoreceptors of anchovies Anchoa mitchilli and A. hepsetus consist of normal rods and two unusual kinds of cones. The latter lie in single vertical rows, and the rods lie between them. Both participate in photomechanical movements, and movement of the cones is closely coordinated with that of pigment cell processes. There are long cones having a cuneate outer segment and short cones having a bilobed outer segment. Long and short (bifid) cones alternate within a row and are staggered between adjacent rows. Both kinds possess calycal processes; long cones have a lateral sac or accessory outer segment. The long and short cones are associated to form a structure called a cone unit, which consists of the outer segment and ellipsoid of a long cone joined to two outer segment lobes of two adjacent short cones. The lobes of the latter are partly enclosed by the ellipsoid of the long cone. A cone row consists of a row of cone units isolated from each other by processes of the pigment epithelium containing stacks of guanine crystals which form a tapetum. Dorsal and ventral faces of inner segments have contact zones characterized by subsurface cisternae. Lamellae in the cone outer segments are arranged longitudinally with respect to the cell axis and short and long cone lamellae are perpendicular to each other; lamellae of the rods are transverse. Long cone lamellae are perpendicular to the cone row, and in the central retina are almost horizontal to the long axis of the body. Some vesicular/tubular structures also occur in the cone outer segments. Outer and inner segments of cones are joined by a broad connecting structure containing a stalk and root portion corresponding to a modified and reduced cilium shaft and centriole, respectively. The rod has a typical connecting stalk. Mitochondria of cone ellipsoids have expanded perimitochondrial spaces between outer and inner membranes. The organization of the anchovy cones is compared with that of other vertebrates. It is suggested that the cone unit may be a two channel analyser for the detection of plane polarized light and function in conjunction with the overlying reflector of regularly arranged platelets.