The paper considers the possibilities for meeting the hazards in agriculture - scientific, technological and socio-economic. The discussion is divided broadly into three sections, covering the physical situation; other factors (such as population and the availability of both expertise and funds) which need to be taken into account; and pointers to future improvement. The first section discusses the resource basis, emphasizing the effect which long-term exploitation by man has already had and indicating, mainly from actual studies undertaken, how evaluation of potential can be undertaken. The second section discusses other constraints which have hitherto tended to hold back agricultural development, and the new impetus which, wisely handled, the vastly-increased oil revenues of the area can supply. Finally, a brief survey is presented covering the directions which future agricultural development in the region might take, and some of the key inputs which may be needed.