The states of aggregation of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) protein have been characterized by sedimentation velocity experiments and electron microscopy. The main association product is a spherical particle with an s value of about 30S. It is highly likely that the assembly of this particle starts with dimers of the 25 000 molecular mass unit resulting in an icosahedral particle made of 30 dimers. No intermediate aggregation products have been detected. The clustering pattern of the protein in the cylindrical part of the AMV capsid favours the concept of dimers as the active assembling units.