The membrane system is made up of the nuclear envelopes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasmalemma. Interconnexions between the various parts of the system are shown and these probably represent a flow of membrane from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi apparatus to the plasmalemma. Membrane fractions have been isolated from broken cells and their function in the synthesis of poly-saccharides established. It has been shown that the matrix polysaccharides of the wall (pectic substances and hemicelluloses) are formed within the membranes and that the pattern of synthesis of these polymers changes during differentiation of the cells. Cellulose microfibrils are probably synthesized at the plasmalemma which is formed by incorporation of membrane bounded vesicles from the Golgi apparatus. Thus the assembly of the polymers takes place either when the membrane is within the cytoplasm or when it is incorporated as the plasmalemma of the cell.