A clinical examination was carried out on 75% of the population aged 20 to 30 in two villages of Kurdish Jews and three of Yemenite Jews. Seventy-six Yemenite and 119 Kurdish Jews were examined. There were 91 women and 104 men. The subjects were classified as 'fit' or 'unfit', the unfit being those subjects who were considered to be unsuitable for undergoing the tests of physical work capacity and response to a standardized heat test. Thirty of the 195 subjects were classified as unfit. Dental health was assessed by recording the number of decayed (d.), missing (m.) and filled (f.) teeth (d.m.f. index). There was a higher d.m.f. index amongst the Kurdish Jews than amongst the Yemenite Jews; the dental health in both communities was satisfactory. Although there were many different pathological conditions observed, the commonest were cardiovascular and enlargement of the spleen or liver. Respiratory diseases were rare.